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Hydraulic Fracturing In The Karoo Pdf Download, charitra praman patra form download pdf
bd40bc7c7a ^ a b c d e Cropley, Ed Insight: Water, Wealth and Whites. 403 Forbidden . Web. Contents 1 History 1.1 Shale in the Karoo 1.2 Government involvement 2 Hydraulic fracturing process 3 Economic impacts 4 Controversy 4.1 Economic concerns 4.2 Environmental concerns 4.3 Cultural concerns 5 References . Institute for Groundwater Studies, 2013. 2014. 2013. Economic impacts.
For the first 24 exploratory wells alone, it is estimated that 57 million gallons of water will be needed. However, low rainfall levels and high evaporation make South Africa the 30th driest country in the world, which is especially concerning to many opponents of fracking given the semi-desert environment of the Karoo. Local villages are especially vulnerable to water shortages, often depending on a small number of wells for drinking, washing, and irrigating. South Africa is projected by some to run out of water by 2025, and 95% of available fresh water was allocated by 2005. Proponents propose transporting water from areas with a surplus in the immediate area, avoiding the depletion of local supplies. Other strategies could involve piping in seawater after it has been purified or taking water from the Orange River, although these strategies have limitations. Transportation burdens existing infrastructure, and purification of seawater is costly.. Fracking Revenue Still Not Clear Shell. "Fracking Debate Racks South Africa." The Wall Street Journal. Government involvement. 2014. Hydraulic fracturing process. 14 Mar. ^ Artel, Sabrina South Africa Lifts Fracking Moratorium; Citizens Alarmed By U.S.